#### Ionut Florescu Probability and Stochastic Processes

A comprehensive and accessible presentation of probability and stochastic processes with emphasis on key theoretical concepts and real-world applications With a sophisticated approach, Probability and Stochastic Processes successfully balances theory and applications in a pedagogical and accessible format. The book’s primary focus is on key theoretical notions in probability to provide a foundation for understanding concepts and examples related to stochastic processes. Organized into two main sections, the book begins by developing probability theory with topical coverage on probability measure; random variables; integration theory; product spaces, conditional distribution, and conditional expectations; and limit theorems. The second part explores stochastic processes and related concepts including the Poisson process, renewal processes, Markov chains, semi-Markov processes, martingales, and Brownian motion. Featuring a logical combination of traditional and complex theories as well as practices, Probability and Stochastic Processes also includes: Multiple examples from disciplines such as business, mathematical finance, and engineering Chapter-by-chapter exercises and examples to allow readers to test their comprehension of the presented material A rigorous treatment of all probability and stochastic processes concepts An appropriate textbook for probability and stochastic processes courses at the upper-undergraduate and graduate level in mathematics, business, and electrical engineering, Probability and Stochastic Processes is also an ideal reference for researchers and practitioners in the fields of mathematics, engineering, and finance.

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Подробнее#### Guojun Gan Measure, Probability, and Mathematical Finance

An introduction to the mathematical theory and financial models developed and used on Wall Street Providing both a theoretical and practical approach to the underlying mathematical theory behind financial models, Measure, Probability, and Mathematical Finance: A Problem-Oriented Approach presents important concepts and results in measure theory, probability theory, stochastic processes, and stochastic calculus. Measure theory is indispensable to the rigorous development of probability theory and is also necessary to properly address martingale measures, the change of numeraire theory, and LIBOR market models. In addition, probability theory is presented to facilitate the development of stochastic processes, including martingales and Brownian motions, while stochastic processes and stochastic calculus are discussed to model asset prices and develop derivative pricing models. The authors promote a problem-solving approach when applying mathematics in real-world situations, and readers are encouraged to address theorems and problems with mathematical rigor. In addition, Measure, Probability, and Mathematical Finance features: A comprehensive list of concepts and theorems from measure theory, probability theory, stochastic processes, and stochastic calculus Over 500 problems with hints and select solutions to reinforce basic concepts and important theorems Classic derivative pricing models in mathematical finance that have been developed and published since the seminal work of Black and Scholes Measure, Probability, and Mathematical Finance: A Problem-Oriented Approach is an ideal textbook for introductory quantitative courses in business, economics, and mathematical finance at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book is also a useful reference for readers who need to build their mathematical skills in order to better understand the mathematical theory of derivative pricing models.

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Подробнее#### Peter Olofsson Probability, Statistics, and Stochastic Processes

Praise for the First Edition «. . . an excellent textbook . . . well organized and neatly written.» —Mathematical Reviews «. . . amazingly interesting . . .» —Technometrics Thoroughly updated to showcase the interrelationships between probability, statistics, and stochastic processes, Probability, Statistics, and Stochastic Processes, Second Edition prepares readers to collect, analyze, and characterize data in their chosen fields. Beginning with three chapters that develop probability theory and introduce the axioms of probability, random variables, and joint distributions, the book goes on to present limit theorems and simulation. The authors combine a rigorous, calculus-based development of theory with an intuitive approach that appeals to readers' sense of reason and logic. Including more than 400 examples that help illustrate concepts and theory, the Second Edition features new material on statistical inference and a wealth of newly added topics, including: Consistency of point estimators Large sample theory Bootstrap simulation Multiple hypothesis testing Fisher's exact test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test Martingales, renewal processes, and Brownian motion One-way analysis of variance and the general linear model Extensively class-tested to ensure an accessible presentation, Probability, Statistics, and Stochastic Processes, Second Edition is an excellent book for courses on probability and statistics at the upper-undergraduate level. The book is also an ideal resource for scientists and engineers in the fields of statistics, mathematics, industrial management, and engineering.

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Подробнее#### Florescu Ionut Handbook of Probability

THE COMPLETE COLLECTION NECESSARY FOR A CONCRETE UNDERSTANDING OF PROBABILITY Written in a clear, accessible, and comprehensive manner, the Handbook of Probability presents the fundamentals of probability with an emphasis on the balance of theory, application, and methodology. Utilizing basic examples throughout, the handbook expertly transitions between concepts and practice to allow readers an inclusive introduction to the field of probability. The book provides a useful format with self-contained chapters, allowing the reader easy and quick reference. Each chapter includes an introduction, historical background, theory and applications, algorithms, and exercises. The Handbook of Probability offers coverage of: Probability Space Probability Measure Random Variables Random Vectors in Rn Characteristic Function Moment Generating Function Gaussian Random Vectors Convergence Types Limit Theorems The Handbook of Probability is an ideal resource for researchers and practitioners in numerous fields, such as mathematics, statistics, operations research, engineering, medicine, and finance, as well as a useful text for graduate students.

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Подробнее#### Christopher Small G. Hilbert Space Methods in Probability and Statistical Inference

#### Denis Bosq Mathematical Statistics and Stochastic Processes

Generally, books on mathematical statistics are restricted to the case of independent identically distributed random variables. In this book however, both this case AND the case of dependent variables, i.e. statistics for discrete and continuous time processes, are studied. This second case is very important for today’s practitioners. Mathematical Statistics and Stochastic Processes is based on decision theory and asymptotic statistics and contains up-to-date information on the relevant topics of theory of probability, estimation, confidence intervals, non-parametric statistics and robustness, second-order processes in discrete and continuous time and diffusion processes, statistics for discrete and continuous time processes, statistical prediction, and complements in probability. This book is aimed at students studying courses on probability with an emphasis on measure theory and for all practitioners who apply and use statistics and probability on a daily basis.

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Подробнее#### Society Actuaries of Introductory Stochastic Analysis for Finance and Insurance

Incorporates the many tools needed for modeling and pricing in finance and insurance Introductory Stochastic Analysis for Finance and Insurance introduces readers to the topics needed to master and use basic stochastic analysis techniques for mathematical finance. The author presents the theories of stochastic processes and stochastic calculus and provides the necessary tools for modeling and pricing in finance and insurance. Practical in focus, the book's emphasis is on application, intuition, and computation, rather than theory. Consequently, the text is of interest to graduate students, researchers, and practitioners interested in these areas. While the text is self-contained, an introductory course in probability theory is beneficial to prospective readers. This book evolved from the author's experience as an instructor and has been thoroughly classroom-tested. Following an introduction, the author sets forth the fundamental information and tools needed by researchers and practitioners working in the financial and insurance industries: * Overview of Probability Theory * Discrete-Time stochastic processes * Continuous-time stochastic processes * Stochastic calculus: basic topics The final two chapters, Stochastic Calculus: Advanced Topics and Applications in Insurance, are devoted to more advanced topics. Readers learn the Feynman-Kac formula, the Girsanov's theorem, and complex barrier hitting times distributions. Finally, readers discover how stochastic analysis and principles are applied in practice through two insurance examples: valuation of equity-linked annuities under a stochastic interest rate environment and calculation of reserves for universal life insurance. Throughout the text, figures and tables are used to help simplify complex theory and pro-cesses. An extensive bibliography opens up additional avenues of research to specialized topics. Ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, this text is recommended for one-semester courses in stochastic finance and calculus. It is also recommended as a study guide for professionals taking Causality Actuarial Society (CAS) and Society of Actuaries (SOA) actuarial examinations.

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Подробнее#### Hanspeter Schmidli Stochastic Processes for Insurance and Finance

Stochastic Processes for Insurance and Finance offers a thorough yet accessible reference for researchers and practitioners of insurance mathematics. Building on recent and rapid developments in applied probability, the authors describe in general terms models based on Markov processes, martingales and various types of point processes. Discussing frequently asked insurance questions, the authors present a coherent overview of the subject and specifically address: The principal concepts from insurance and finance Practical examples with real life data Numerical and algorithmic procedures essential for modern insurance practices Assuming competence in probability calculus, this book will provide a fairly rigorous treatment of insurance risk theory recommended for researchers and students interested in applied probability as well as practitioners of actuarial sciences. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics

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Подробнее#### Группа авторов Probability, Statistics, and Stochastic Processes

A mathematical and intuitive approach to probability, statistics, and stochastic processes This textbook provides a unique, balanced approach to probability, statistics, and stochastic processes. Readers gain a solid foundation in all three fields that serves as a stepping stone to more advanced investigations into each area. This text combines a rigorous, calculus-based development of theory with a more intuitive approach that appeals to readers' sense of reason and logic, an approach developed through the author's many years of classroom experience. The text begins with three chapters that develop probability theory and introduce the axioms of probability, random variables, and joint distributions. The next two chapters introduce limit theorems and simulation. Also included is a chapter on statistical inference with a section on Bayesian statistics, which is an important, though often neglected, topic for undergraduate-level texts. Markov chains in discrete and continuous time are also discussed within the book. More than 400 examples are interspersed throughout the text to help illustrate concepts and theory and to assist the reader in developing an intuitive sense of the subject. Readers will find many of the examples to be both entertaining and thought provoking. This is also true for the carefully selected problems that appear at the end of each chapter. This book is an excellent text for upper-level undergraduate courses. While many texts treat probability theory and statistical inference or probability theory and stochastic processes, this text enables students to become proficient in all three of these essential topics. For students in science and engineering who may take only one course in probability theory, mastering all three areas will better prepare them to collect, analyze, and characterize data in their chosen fields.

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Подробнее#### Группа авторов Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications

An accessible introduction to probability, stochastic processes, and statistics for computer science and engineering applications Second edition now also available in Paperback. This updated and revised edition of the popular classic first edition relates fundamental concepts in probability and statistics to the computer sciences and engineering. The author uses Markov chains and other statistical tools to illustrate processes in reliability of computer systems and networks, fault tolerance, and performance. This edition features an entirely new section on stochastic Petri nets—as well as new sections on system availability modeling, wireless system modeling, numerical solution techniques for Markov chains, and software reliability modeling, among other subjects. Extensive revisions take new developments in solution techniques and applications into account and bring this work totally up to date. It includes more than 200 worked examples and self-study exercises for each section. Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing and Computer Science Applications, Second Edition offers a comprehensive introduction to probability, stochastic processes, and statistics for students of computer science, electrical and computer engineering, and applied mathematics. Its wealth of practical examples and up-to-date information makes it an excellent resource for practitioners as well. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

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Подробнее#### Oliver Ibe C. Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks

An interdisciplinary approach to understanding queueing and graphical networks In today's era of interdisciplinary studies and research activities, network models are becoming increasingly important in various areas where they have not regularly been used. Combining techniques from stochastic processes and graph theory to analyze the behavior of networks, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks provides an interdisciplinary approach by including practical applications of these stochastic networks in various fields of study, from engineering and operations management to communications and the physical sciences. The author uniquely unites different types of stochastic, queueing, and graphical networks that are typically studied independently of each other. With balanced coverage, the book is organized into three succinct parts: Part I introduces basic concepts in probability and stochastic processes, with coverage on counting, Poisson, renewal, and Markov processes Part II addresses basic queueing theory, with a focus on Markovian queueing systems and also explores advanced queueing theory, queueing networks, and approximations of queueing networks Part III focuses on graphical models, presenting an introduction to graph theory along with Bayesian, Boolean, and random networks The author presents the material in a self-contained style that helps readers apply the presented methods and techniques to science and engineering applications. Numerous practical examples are also provided throughout, including all related mathematical details. Featuring basic results without heavy emphasis on proving theorems, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks is a suitable book for courses on probability and stochastic networks, stochastic network calculus, and stochastic network optimization at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book also serves as a reference for researchers and network professionals who would like to learn more about the general principles of stochastic networks.

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Подробнее#### Группа авторов A First Course in Stochastic Models

The field of applied probability has changed profoundly in the past twenty years. The development of computational methods has greatly contributed to a better understanding of the theory. A First Course in Stochastic Models provides a self-contained introduction to the theory and applications of stochastic models. Emphasis is placed on establishing the theoretical foundations of the subject, thereby providing a framework in which the applications can be understood. Without this solid basis in theory no applications can be solved. Provides an introduction to the use of stochastic models through an integrated presentation of theory, algorithms and applications. Incorporates recent developments in computational probability. Includes a wide range of examples that illustrate the models and make the methods of solution clear. Features an abundance of motivating exercises that help the student learn how to apply the theory. Accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of probability. A First Course in Stochastic Models is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students from computer science, engineering, statistics, operations resear ch, and any other discipline where stochastic modelling takes place. It stands out amongst other textbooks on the subject because of its integrated presentation of theory, algorithms and applications.

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Подробнее#### Boris Harlamov Stochastic Risk Analysis and Management

The author investigates the Cramer –Lundberg model, collecting the most interesting theorems and methods, which estimate probability of default for a company of insurance business. These offer different kinds of approximate values for probability of default on the base of normal and diffusion approach and some special asymptotic.

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Подробнее#### Группа авторов Vector Integration and Stochastic Integration in Banach Spaces

A breakthrough approach to the theory and applications of stochastic integration The theory of stochastic integration has become an intensely studied topic in recent years, owing to its extraordinarily successful application to financial mathematics, stochastic differential equations, and more. This book features a new measure theoretic approach to stochastic integration, opening up the field for researchers in measure and integration theory, functional analysis, probability theory, and stochastic processes. World-famous expert on vector and stochastic integration in Banach spaces Nicolae Dinculeanu compiles and consolidates information from disparate journal articles-including his own results-presenting a comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of the theory in two major parts. He first develops a general integration theory, discussing vector integration with respect to measures with finite semivariation, then applies the theory to stochastic integration in Banach spaces. Vector Integration and Stochastic Integration in Banach Spaces goes far beyond the typical treatment of the scalar case given in other books on the subject. Along with such applications of the vector integration as the Reisz representation theorem and the Stieltjes integral for functions of one or two variables with finite semivariation, it explores the emergence of new classes of summable processes that make applications possible, including square integrable martingales in Hilbert spaces and processes with integrable variation or integrable semivariation in Banach spaces. Numerous references to existing results supplement this exciting, breakthrough work.

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Подробнее#### Группа авторов Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance

Reflecting the fast pace and ever-evolving nature of the financial industry, the Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance details how high-frequency analysis presents new systematic approaches to implementing quantitative activities with high-frequency financial data. Introducing new and established mathematical foundations necessary to analyze realistic market models and scenarios, the handbook begins with a presentation of the dynamics and complexity of futures and derivatives markets as well as a portfolio optimization problem using quantum computers. Subsequently, the handbook addresses estimating complex model parameters using high-frequency data. Finally, the handbook focuses on the links between models used in financial markets and models used in other research areas such as geophysics, fossil records, and earthquake studies. The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance also features: • Contributions by well-known experts within the academic, industrial, and regulatory fields • A well-structured outline on the various data analysis methodologies used to identify new trading opportunities • Newly emerging quantitative tools that address growing concerns relating to high-frequency data such as stochastic volatility and volatility tracking; stochastic jump processes for limit-order books and broader market indicators; and options markets • Practical applications using real-world data to help readers better understand the presented material The Handbook of High-Frequency Trading and Modeling in Finance is an excellent reference for professionals in the fields of business, applied statistics, econometrics, and financial engineering. The handbook is also a good supplement for graduate and MBA-level courses on quantitative finance, volatility, and financial econometrics. Ionut Florescu, PhD, is Research Associate Professor in Financial Engineering and Director of the Hanlon Financial Systems Laboratory at Stevens Institute of Technology. His research interests include stochastic volatility, stochastic partial differential equations, Monte Carlo Methods, and numerical methods for stochastic processes. Dr. Florescu is the author of Probability and Stochastic Processes, the coauthor of Handbook of Probability, and the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, all published by Wiley. Maria C. Mariani, PhD, is Shigeko K. Chan Distinguished Professor in Mathematical Sciences and Chair of the Department of Mathematical Sciences at The University of Texas at El Paso. Her research interests include mathematical finance, applied mathematics, geophysics, nonlinear and stochastic partial differential equations and numerical methods. Dr. Mariani is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley. H. Eugene Stanley, PhD, is William Fairfield Warren Distinguished Professor at Boston University. Stanley is one of the key founders of the new interdisciplinary field of econophysics, and has an ISI Hirsch index H=128 based on more than 1200 papers. In 2004 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Frederi G. Viens, PhD, is Professor of Statistics and Mathematics and Director of the Computational Finance Program at Purdue University. He holds more than two dozen local, regional, and national awards and he travels extensively on a world-wide basis to deliver lectures on his research interests, which range from quantitative finance to climate science and agricultural economics. A Fellow of the Institute of Mathematics Statistics, Dr. Viens is the coeditor of Handbook of Modeling High-Frequency Data in Finance, also published by Wiley.

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Подробнее#### Robert P. Dobrow Introduction to Stochastic Processes with R

An introduction to stochastic processes through the use of R Introduction to Stochastic Processes with R is an accessible and well-balanced presentation of the theory of stochastic processes, with an emphasis on real-world applications of probability theory in the natural and social sciences. The use of simulation, by means of the popular statistical software R, makes theoretical results come alive with practical, hands-on demonstrations. Written by a highly-qualified expert in the field, the author presents numerous examples from a wide array of disciplines, which are used to illustrate concepts and highlight computational and theoretical results. Developing readers’ problem-solving skills and mathematical maturity, Introduction to Stochastic Processes with R features: More than 200 examples and 600 end-of-chapter exercises A tutorial for getting started with R, and appendices that contain review material in probability and matrix algebra Discussions of many timely and stimulating topics including Markov chain Monte Carlo, random walk on graphs, card shuffling, Black–Scholes options pricing, applications in biology and genetics, cryptography, martingales, and stochastic calculus Introductions to mathematics as needed in order to suit readers at many mathematical levels A companion web site that includes relevant data files as well as all R code and scripts used throughout the book Introduction to Stochastic Processes with R is an ideal textbook for an introductory course in stochastic processes. The book is aimed at undergraduate and beginning graduate-level students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines. The book is also an excellent reference for applied mathematicians and statisticians who are interested in a review of the topic.

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Подробнее#### Patrick Muldowney Gauge Integral Structures for Stochastic Calculus and Quantum Electrodynamics

A stand-alone introduction to specific integration problems in the probabilistic theory of stochastic calculus Picking up where his previous book, A Modern Theory of Random Variation , left off, Gauge Integral Structures for Stochastic Calculus and Quantum Electrodynamics introduces readers to particular problems of integration in the probability-like theory of quantum mechanics. Written as a motivational explanation of the key points of the underlying mathematical theory, and including ample illustrations of the calculus, this book relies heavily on the mathematical theory set out in the author’s previous work. That said, this work stands alone and does not require a reading of A Modern Theory of Random Variation in order to be understandable. Gauge Integral Structures for Stochastic Calculus and Quantum Electrodynamics takes a gradual, relaxed, and discursive approach to the subject in a successful attempt to engage the reader by exploring a narrower range of themes and problems. Organized around examples with accompanying introductions and explanations, the book covers topics such as: Stochastic calculus, including discussions of random variation, integration and probability, and stochastic processes. Field theory, including discussions of gauges for product spaces and quantum electrodynamics. Robust and thorough appendices, examples, illustrations, and introductions for each of the concepts discussed within. An introduction to basic gauge integral theory. The methods employed in this book show, for instance, that it is no longer necessary to resort to unreliable «Black Box» theory in financial calculus; that full mathematical rigor can now be combined with clarity and simplicity. Perfect for students and academics with even a passing interest in the application of the gauge integral technique pioneered by R. Henstock and J. Kurzweil, Gauge Integral Structures for Stochastic Calculus and Quantum Electrodynamics is an illuminating and insightful exploration of the complex mathematical topics contained within.

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Подробнее#### Vigirdas Mackevicius Introduction to Stochastic Analysis. Integrals and Differential Equations

This is an introduction to stochastic integration and stochastic differential equations written in an understandable way for a wide audience, from students of mathematics to practitioners in biology, chemistry, physics, and finances. The presentation is based on the naïve stochastic integration, rather than on abstract theories of measure and stochastic processes. The proofs are rather simple for practitioners and, at the same time, rather rigorous for mathematicians. Detailed application examples in natural sciences and finance are presented. Much attention is paid to simulation diffusion processes. The topics covered include Brownian motion; motivation of stochastic models with Brownian motion; Itô and Stratonovich stochastic integrals, Itô’s formula; stochastic differential equations (SDEs); solutions of SDEs as Markov processes; application examples in physical sciences and finance; simulation of solutions of SDEs (strong and weak approximations). Exercises with hints and/or solutions are also provided.

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Подробнее#### Jie Li Stochastic Dynamics of Structures

In Stochastic Dynamics of Structures, Li and Chen present a unified view of the theory and techniques for stochastic dynamics analysis, prediction of reliability, and system control of structures within the innovative theoretical framework of physical stochastic systems. The authors outline the fundamental concepts of random variables, stochastic process and random field, and orthogonal expansion of random functions. Readers will gain insight into core concepts such as stochastic process models for typical dynamic excitations of structures, stochastic finite element, and random vibration analysis. Li and Chen also cover advanced topics, including the theory of and elaborate numerical methods for probability density evolution analysis of stochastic dynamical systems, reliability-based design, and performance control of structures. Stochastic Dynamics of Structures presents techniques for researchers and graduate students in a wide variety of engineering fields: civil engineering, mechanical engineering, aerospace and aeronautics, marine and offshore engineering, ship engineering, and applied mechanics. Practicing engineers will benefit from the concise review of random vibration theory and the new methods introduced in the later chapters. «The book is a valuable contribution to the continuing development of the field of stochastic structural dynamics, including the recent discoveries and developments by the authors of the probability density evolution method (PDEM) and its applications to the assessment of the dynamic reliability and control of complex structures through the equivalent extreme-value distribution.» —A. H-S. Ang, NAE, Hon. Mem. ASCE, Research Professor, University of California, Irvine, USA «The authors have made a concerted effort to present a responsible and even holistic account of modern stochastic dynamics. Beyond the traditional concepts, they also discuss theoretical tools of recent currency such as the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, evolutionary power spectra, etc. The theoretical developments are properly supplemented by examples from earthquake, wind, and ocean engineering. The book is integrated by also comprising several useful appendices, and an exhaustive list of references; it will be an indispensable tool for students, researchers, and practitioners endeavoring in its thematic field.» —Pol Spanos, NAE, Ryon Chair in Engineering, Rice University, Houston, USA

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Подробнее#### Patrick Muldowney A Modern Theory of Random Variation. With Applications in Stochastic Calculus, Financial Mathematics, and Feynman Integration

A ground-breaking and practical treatment of probability and stochastic processes A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a new and radical re-formulation of the mathematical underpinnings of subjects as diverse as investment, communication engineering, and quantum mechanics. Setting aside the classical theory of probability measure spaces, the book utilizes a mathematically rigorous version of the theory of random variation that bases itself exclusively on finitely additive probability distribution functions. In place of twentieth century Lebesgue integration and measure theory, the author uses the simpler concept of Riemann sums, and the non-absolute Riemann-type integration of Henstock. Readers are supplied with an accessible approach to standard elements of probability theory such as the central limmit theorem and Brownian motion as well as remarkable, new results on Feynman diagrams and stochastic integrals. Throughout the book, detailed numerical demonstrations accompany the discussions of abstract mathematical theory, from the simplest elements of the subject to the most complex. In addition, an array of numerical examples and vivid illustrations showcase how the presented methods and applications can be undertaken at various levels of complexity. A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a suitable book for courses on mathematical analysis, probability theory, and mathematical finance at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book is also an indispensible resource for researchers and practitioners who are seeking new concepts, techniques and methodologies in data analysis, numerical calculation, and financial asset valuation. Patrick Muldowney, PhD, served as lecturer at the Magee Business School of the UNiversity of Ulster for over twenty years. Dr. Muldowney has published extensively in his areas of research, including integration theory, financial mathematics, and random variation.

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